How Much Does a Septic Tank Installation Cost? (2022)

What to Know About Septic Systems Costs Both New and Replacement

If you’re considering buying a home that neeDo you need to replace your septic system? Are you interested in understanding the costs of septic system replacement?

If you’re considering buying a home that needs a new septic tank system or getting a construction loan to build a new property, you might need to know a typical septic system’s cost.

The costs involved with buying such a system are significant as it requires a lot of work from your contractor.

Many factors affect typical septic system costs. Let’s take a look at the things you need to consider when installing a new septic system, along with replacing an existing one.

How Septic Tanks May Be Affected by the Pandemic

You may not have realized it, but your septic tank was very likely impacted by the pandemic and may still be impacted. Septic tanks are sized based on projected need. This includes the number of water sources in the home, the number of occupants, and how many hours a day they are home.

When the pandemic was declared in March 2020, most non-essential workers and school children began staying or working from home. This put high stress on septic systems because more people were using the systems for more hours a day than they may have been designed for.

While some people resumed their normal lives and schedules after a short period, an estimated 25% to 30% of the workforce will continue to work from home once the pandemic is over. Many families have also turned to homeschooling to avoid disruptions during this time, meaning many families are spending more hours at home than before the pandemic.

This may mean your septic system is overburdened. It may need to be pumped more frequently than before, need additional service, or be replaced entirely, depending on its age and condition. Families with septic systems should have them inspected and talk with their septic company about addressing their needs.


Septic Distribution Box Cost

While the distribution box might not seem like a major component in the septic system, it is one of the most important pieces. The distribution box is where the effluent flows through to get to the drain field. It is the connector between the tank and the drain field. If the distribution box is damaged or not functioning, it can cause the entire system to fail.

A distribution box is not very expensive, usually between $50 and $100 for a plastic distribution box. Concrete is more expensive because the boxes are heavier and have to be precast or cast in place. The cost of a concrete distribution box is usually between $600 and $650.

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Septic Tank Removal

Removing a tank is one of the primary parts of septic tank replacement. The cost includes pumping the tank first and then removing it.

The exact cost will vary depending on local labor costs, distance from the dumping ground, local dumping ground fees, what type of tank you have (lighter materials like fiberglass and plastic will be easier to remove), and tank size.

Septic Tank Cost by House Size

Like tank size, home size is another easy way to estimate how much a septic tank will cost. Larger homes require larger septic tanks. Rather than calculate the exact home size, an easy way to figure out how large your septic tank needs to be is by the number of bedrooms.

For example, a one bedroom house requires a septic tank that is 500 gallons, and costs between $500 and $1,000.

A home with three to four bedrooms will require a 1,000 gallon tank, and will cost between $1,000 and $1,500.

For larger homes or duplexes, the gallons required can range between $1,500 and over $5,000, depending on the size. The price will vary accordingly.

House Size Septic Tank Cost
1 Bedroom Home $500 – $1,000
2 Bedroom Home $700 – $1,300
3-4 Bedroom Home $1,000 – $1,500
5-6 Bedroom Home $1,300 – $1,650
6-7 Bedroom Home or Small Duplex $1,500 – $2,200
Duplex or Small Apartment Building (under fourteen occupants) $3,000 – $4,000
Small to Medium Size Apartment Building $4,500 – $6,500
Large Apartment Building or Shared Community Tank $8,000 – $15,000+

Why you need a new septic tank

AXL/Shutterstock AXL/Shutterstock

There are many reasons why you might want to replace a septic tank. These begin with a natural lifespan calculation of the current system, but this isn’t the only factor at play when it comes to replacing your wastewater treatment system.

A damaged tank should be repaired or replaced immediately

If your septic tank has been damaged or shows some of the telltale signs of leaks or other seepage issues, then inspecting the system should be your first priority. Aqua Test Inc. notes that a damaged tank can be detrimental to the surrounding ecosystem of your lawn, and the best way to catch these issues before they develop into a significant problem is to check your tank for damage every five years.

If the tank is damaged beyond repair, then an immediate replacement is simply necessary. Just like broken windows, a leaking roof, or cracks in the foundation, the septic tank is a feature of the home that can’t be pushed down the road for replacement once the time has come.

Your septic capacity needs may change over time

If you’ve recently renovated your home to include an in-law suite, added bedroom, or any other expansion to match the needs of a growing family, you may also require a larger septic tank to keep pace with your wastewater requirements. Aqua Test Inc. notes that a 900 or 1,000-gallon tank is typically appropriate for a standard layout that supports one to three bedrooms. This equates to about 500 gallons of water used per day.

Alternatively, a five-bedroom home averages about 900 gallons of water usage each day, resulting in a larger tank capacity requirement. If you’ve added new living space to support an in-law or any other new addition to the property, upgrading from a smaller tank to one that holds 1,500 gallons will help support the ongoing lifestyle and comfort that you’ve come to expect from your home.

Additional costs

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When installing a new septic tank, you may need to replace additional components or apply for relevant permits. These additional considerations shouldn’t be overlooked when replacing a septic tank.

Permits can raise the cost by a slim margin but are an important part of the installation process

Permitting issues are important to consider when adding a new septic tank to your property. The EPA notes that a typical septic tank installation must be inspected by your local community’s governing body. This oversight is put in place to ensure that your tank is installed correctly — protecting your home and the surrounding community from failures related to improper installation — and that the tank is placed in a location that best supports its function.

EPA guidance reports that septic tank outlets should be at least 10 feet away from the structure they draw wastewater from. The tanks themselves should remain located in areas of the property that aren’t susceptible to flooding or pooling surface water. D-Tox Group notes that a septic tank may be as far away from the structure as 50 meters in some instances (although local regulations and space constraints will dictate the exact placement of your septic utility).

Installing a new tank might be the perfect opportunity to update other components in the septic system

When installing a new septic tank, you may want to consider updating other elements of the system for a seamless integration of parts and to sync maintenance schedules. HomeServe notes that the drain field can often sustain functionality for about the same length of time as the tank, and a drain field replacement operation will cost between $3,500 and $11,000 for more in-depth work.

You might also want to replace the tank pump or filter along with the tank itself. HomeServe reports that a pump will cost between $500 and $1,200, while the filter (as the most common maintenance requirement of the septic system as a whole) will cost between $230 and $280.

Septic Tank Cost: Replacement Parts

As with any mechanical system, issues are bound to arise. Septic tanks that are properly cleaned and maintained can last an average of 20 to 40 years. While some of the problems with septic tank systems are easy to solve, others will require significant assistance from a professional. From baffles to tank lids, these are the most common parts of a septic tank that may need to be replaced or repaired.

Baffle Replacement

Baffles are designed to help prevent scum from clogging inlets and pipes. Baffles that fail or get clogged are a common issue, and replacing them is usually much cheaper than replacing the entire tank. Replacement costs range between $300 and $500 including labor.

Septic Tank Pump Replacement

For septic tanks that require a pump to push the effluent from the tank to the drain field, it’s possible that the pump may fail to do the job properly. The average cost to replace a failed pump ranges between $800 and $1,400 including labor.


Tank Lid Replacement

A broken or rusted lid is a minor repair that costs between $30 and $70 before labor. Metal lids are the easiest to replace if they have rusted over, while a concrete lid may require some special equipment to remove and install the new lid.

Septic Tank Filter Replacement

Replacing a septic tank filter is the most common issue for most homeowners. The cost to have a replacement filter installed on a septic tank averages between $230 and $280.

Septic Drain Field Replacement

If a septic tank leach field or drain field becomes oversaturated, sewage can back up into the house. The average cost to dig out the existing drain field and install a new one runs $7,000.

How to Save Money on Septic Tank Cost

There are a few ways that can help save money on septic tank costs. Some of these can be achieved by DIY-ing some of the easier preinstallation tasks. Here are a few ideas to get started.

  • Ask about current or upcoming discounts or promotions.
  • Request a quote from at least two companies, if possible.
  • Ask about all-in-one installation costs, and compare them to expected costs in the event you complete some tasks on your own.
  • Consider preparing the land before installation begins.
  • Consider purchasing and placing the gravel that’s used beneath the tank and drain field yourself.
  • Request soil tests and permits yourself. However, be aware that some companies will only accept permits they obtained.

Permits and Red Tape

Various tests will need to be undertaken before you can even consider having a septic tank installed. A deep hole percolation test, costing $1,500, determines the type of soil you have. A positive test means that you can have a standard leach field. A negative test means that you will have to have an above-ground or mound septic system, which will cost two or three times as much as a normal septic system.

Once the tank and system are fully installed, you will have to have them inspected. Permits cost approximately $300, with costs being determined by the area you live.

It’s also worth taking into account additional costs that might be incurred once the job is done. Expect to budget between $50 and $200 a year for maintenance, with pumping required every three to five years.

Finally, you may have to pay for landscaping and other work to make the area look good once the tank is installed and operational.

Image Credit: AuntSpray, Shutterstock
Image Credit: AuntSpray, Shutterstock

Building a Drain Field

The drain field is an integral part of the septic system. Also referred to as leach fields or leach drains, a drain field is a network of pipework where the separated waste is passed. The effluent trickles out of the pipes, through aggregate that is used to prevent flooding, and into the soil below. Here, the soil disposes of bacteria before the cleaned water is passed back into the water table. Expect to pay anywhere between $2,000 and $8,000 to have an effective drain field built as part of your system.

Image Credit: Slave SPB, Shutterstock
Image Credit: Slave SPB, Shutterstock

Septic Tank Materials

Another factor influencing cost is what your septic tank is made from. Here are some of the most common materials:


Concrete tanks are the most common type of septic tank because they’re durable. Properly maintained, they can last 20 to 30 years. However, concrete may crack over time. Reinforcing the concrete with rebar helps increase its strength under pressure. Installation is more challenging, and extensive equipment is needed because of its weight. According to HomeGuide, the cost for an average-sized concrete tank is between $700 and $2,000 (CAD 900 to CAD 2,600).


Fiberglass doesn’t weaken when used underground, and it’s nonporous, so it won’t attract algae growth. Installation is easier because the tank is light. Unlike concrete, it won’t expand or contract, so you don’t have to worry about cracking. The average fiberglass tank costs $1,600 to $2,000 (CAD 2,000 to CAD 2,600).


Plastic tanks are light and easy to install. They’re also quite durable. Depending on the type, plastic tanks cost $800 to $2,000 (CAD 1,000 to CAD 2,600), on average.


Despite steel’s strength and durability, septic tanks made of steel can rust and collapse if not properly cleaned. As a result, some local authorities have increased regulations to discourage their use. You’ll usually find them in areas where the system already existed. If you can get one installed, they cost $500 to $2,500 (CAD 650 to CAD 3,200), according to Remodeling Expense.

How much does it cost to repair a septic tank?

If your tank isn’t working properly, repairs can run you anywhere up to $1,500. However, your issue might not be with the tank itself but some other part of the septic system.

It really all comes down to which part is broken:

  • Pump repairs can cost $250 to $400.
  • Filter replacement will run you somewhere in the $200 to $300 range.
  • Baffles cost anywhere from $100 to $900 to fix.
  • Septic lines average around $1,500 to repair, but it’s not unheard of for them to run up to $4,000.

If you can have your septic tank or system repaired and still get many years out of it, then that’s generally the favorable option. However, not all problems are fixable.

A septic tank professional should consider the following as they help you determine whether repair or replacement is right for your home:

  • Are puddles forming quickly? Generally speaking, puddles in the yard aren’t too problematic. Puddles in the yard that quickly form overnight are a whole different matter, though. When puddles form slowly, it typically indicates a full septic tank, but it could also mean there’s a problem with the pipes or the leach field. If the puddles are springing up quickly, it points to a more serious problem, such as a cracked tank that you’ll need to replace.
  • What’s your household size? Larger households need larger septic tanks. If your household has grown over the years but your tank has not, it may be a good idea to replace it with a larger tank that can keep up.
  • How often are you needing repairs? An occasional repair isn’t a big deal, but when repairs start becoming a common occurrence, it’s time to reevaluate. A problematic septic system is likely on its way out, meaning you’ll need to pay to replace it.

Whether you’re repairing or replacing your unit, it’s worth noting that you can dramatically reduce your out-of-pocket expenses if your septic tank is under warranty. While some new septic tanks come with warranties from the manufacturer, a home warranty can cover older units as well. You’ll pay for the coverage, but should something happen with your septic tank, you may only have to pay a relatively small service fee before your warranty company covers the rest.

Septic Tank Repair Cost

Although the average lifespan of a septic tank is about 20 to 30 years, your system will have normal wear and tear of its components over time. Most septic tank systems have parts that are independent of each other, making replacements a simple process.

Below are some common septic tank components that may need to be replaced or repaired over time:

  • Tank pump: Not all systems will require a tank pump. However, if you do need a replacement, you can expect to pay $600 to $1,500.
  • Tank lid: Lids may naturally crack over time with continued use of the tank itself. Although the replacement part cost falls between $50 and $120, using a professional for the installation will increase the total to $100 to $300.
  • Tank risers: These components help the lid rise to the surface on septic tanks that are buried further into the ground. For these replacements, expect to pay about $350 to $800.
  • Tank baffle: The baffle, essential in directing the wastewater through the septic tank for proper removal, can be replaced for $25 to $400.
  • Tank filter: This component, which helps prevent solids from flowing into the leach field, will cost around $250 to $300.
  • Leach field: As one of the most expensive replacements in a septic tank system, homeowners can expect to pay $4,000 to $15,000.

Homeowners should also consider a septic tank warranty to cover their system when it’s time for repairs. Replacement costs for individual components will cost much less than replacing your entire system.

Extra Services

Now you should have a detailed estimate of how much you would pay for a new septic tank or whole new septic system for your home. But don’t stop there. If you want to know how much you’ll really spend on this project, there are some related services you’ll need to take into account. 

For one, you may need to prepare your property in some way before it’s ready for the installation of your septic tank. For another, you’ll definitely spend more money over the years maintaining your septic tank with regular pumping and cleaning and the occasional part replacement. 

Part replacements

If you have a problem with your septic system somewhere down the line, don’t panic. Most of the time, replacing a single part will solve your issue quickly and easily. You likely won’t have to replace the whole system or the tank itself for a few decades. 

Keep in mind, even though replacing a small part might seem easy, it’s still a good idea to hire a professional. As with installation, even a minor error can cause major problems that could be expensive to reverse. 

Tank lid$45 – $112
Baffle(s)$23 – $500
Filter$230 – $280
Riser$300 – $600
Pump$620 – $1,300
Leach field$3,375 – $12,000

Regular maintenance

Photo Credit: SuSanA Secretariat / Flickr / CC BY
Photo Credit: SuSanA Secretariat / Flickr / CC BY 2.0

For your septic system to perform to the best of its abilities for as long as possible, the tank will need regular pumping and cleaning. Experts recommend hiring a plumber (or other specialist) about every three to five years to pump your septic tank. On national average, you can expect to pay a pro $294 to $563 for pumping and cleaning. This preventative expense is much less than you would spend repairing a malfunctioning septic system. 

Percolation test cost

Before you install your septic system, you’ll need to get a percolation test from a qualified engineer to figure out the type of soil your installer will be dealing with and the height of the layers in the ground (water table, bedrock, etc). The results of the perc test will determine which type of system would be best for your property. 

Your septic tank installer might be able to conduct the perc test for you, or you may need to hire a separate professional. Either way, expect to pay between $670 and $1,430 for the test.

Land clearing cost

Photo Credit: / Flickr / CC BY-
Photo Credit: / Flickr / CC BY-ND 2.0

Especially on a new construction site, you may need to remove obstacles such as trees and bushes before the installers can break ground on your septic tank project. This job involves excavation and requires a lot of open space, so you may need quite a few obstructions removed. 

More often than not, you’ll need to hire a separate land clearing company to prep the area for your septic tank installation. Clearing a large space usually costs between $1,210 and $4,820.

Landscaping costs

It’s safe to assume that you won’t be happy with the appearance of your yard once your septic system is complete (unless you’re a fan of barren dirt lots). So, after installation, you may want to hire a professional landscaper to cover the site with more aesthetically appealing scenery. 

Landscaping costs are highly subjective because the umbrella term “landscaping” covers so many different services. For example, installing a new flagstone walkway will cost a lot more than planting a few bushes. In general, you can expect to spend $5 to $24 per square foot for professional landscaping, depending on the complexity of the landscape design.

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Septic Tank System Cost

A new septic tank system costs $3,918 to install on average, with prices ranging from $1,500 to upward of $5,000. Most homeowners spend between $3,280 and $5,040 for a 1,250-gallon system that supports 3 or 4 bedrooms. Septic system installation with two alternating pumps costs $9,571 on average and can go up to $15,000.

 Septic System Cost    National  Average Cost   $3

Septic System Cost
National Average Cost $3,918
Minimum Cost $1,500
Maximum Cost $15,000
Average Range $3,280 to $5,040

Your final cost depends on the conditions of current waste lines and the soil where the septic tank will go. When building a home on raw land that is not connected to a local municipality waste system, this type of system is your best option for sewage treatment.

Cost to Replace Parts of Your Septic System 

As your system ages, parts may start to fail or not work correctly. This can add to your septic tank cost, but it’s always more cost-effective to replace parts than the entire system. Hiring a specialist or plumber to complete this replacement process will take your septic tank cost up between $45.00 and $200 an hour. The location will help determine the hourly rate. 


Replacing a baffle can be enough to fix a problem without having to go in, dig out the tank, and completely replace it. The baffle’s function is to prevent scum from building up and clogging the inlets or outlet pipe. Replacing this part if it starts to fail can help save your tank, and this can help you control your septic tank cost by saving thousands. You’ll spend between $300 and $500 for this part. 

Drain or Leach Field

The leach or drain field is the part of your system that takes the wastewater and puts it back in the soil. The first sign that you could have something wrong with this part is that you’ll get a wet and swampy area in your yard. There could also be a strong odor of sewage in your yard. This can easily drive your septic tank cost up by $2,000 to $10,000. 


The lid allows you to access the tank and provides cover for it. The lid can rust on metal tanks and require replacement. Although this is a slightly minor repair that will only increase your septic tank cost by $30.00 to $70.00, you have to do it quickly to avoid accidents. You’ll have to pay installation costs if you hire a professional to replace it for you. If you have a concrete lid, the cost will go up because you’ll need equipment to remove and replace it. 


Finally, your septic tank could have a pump. Most systems do if your setup is below the drain field because the pump will have to push the wastewater up to it. This is a more expensive septic tank cost, and a failed or failing pump can cost between $800 and $1,500 to fix. Also, you’ll have to pay to pump your system every two or three years to get rid of any solid waste. Pumping out your system costs around $400. 

Site Preparation Costs

Since the above costs were just for the system itself and not the site preparation, you’ll want to know how preparation will influence your total septic tank cost. The amount of digging the crew will have to do will influence the price. It can impact your low-maintenance landscaping, and you may find yourself updating, replacing, or repairing it after they finish the installation process. 

The number of plants and shrubs the crew has to remove will influence your excavation costs, how hard the soil is, the type of machinery they’ll need for the project, and the terrain’s quality also play roles. On average, excavation will influence your septic tank cost by increasing it between $1,000 and $4,500. Most companies will add site preparation costs into the total installation prices. This way, you may end up getting a lower rate overall for the excavation process. 

How long does a septic tank last?

Septic tanks usually last 20 to 30 years, but some make it 40 years or more. The longevity of a septic tank depends on what they’re made of and how often they’re cleaned.

Less-popular steel septic tanks may rust out after 15 years, though many last longer. Concrete tanks have longer life spans, but they can be sensitive to acidic soil. Plastic and fiberglass tanks are less susceptible to the elements, but structural damage is more of a concern with these tanks.

The other key to longevity in septic tanks is maintenance. Regular pumping and servicing help ensure your tank does its job for years to come.

FAQ About Septic Tanks

1. Can you install your own septic tank?

Short answer: No. While it is technically possible for you to install your own septic tank, the odds are very high that you’ll make a mistake that will cause you much more grief (and cost you much more money) than working with a professional in the first place.Installing a septic tank requires specialized technical knowledge you can’t gain from a DIY YouTube video. Messing up this project could cause water pollution, drive up your home insurance premiums, and make your home much harder to sell. In some places, it may even be illegal for someone without the proper license to install a septic system.

2. How do septic tanks work?

Different types of septic systems work in different specific ways, as we’ve already covered. But these are the basics. Waste from your home (anything that goes down the drain of toilets, sinks, showers, etc.) flows into the septic tank. In the tank, waste separates into three layers: the scum layer on top, liquid waste in the middle, and solid waste sinking to the bottom. Either aerobic or anaerobic bacteria break down the solid waste, which stays in the tank. Liquid waste goes through the filter before moving on to the leach field, which distributes the water into the ground in most systems. 

3. How can you tell when you need a new septic system? There are a few signs to look for that will tell you it’s time for a new septic system, or at least a repair. Signs include: — Standing water in the yard — Sewage smells — Showers, sinks, etc., in the home draining slowly  — Water and/or sewage backing up in toilets, showers, sinks, etc.

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How to Prepare for Your Septic Tank Installation

To ensure septic tank installation goes smoothly, here are a few tips to keep in mind.

Receive Multiple Estimates

Before any excavation or signed paperwork, receive estimates from licensed septic tank installers and read reviews about each company using trusted, third-party consumer reviews. Ensure the contractor you select holds the proper insurance and licensing and includes necessary preparations like excavation and drain field testing in their estimate.

Test the Soil and Obtain a Permit

Septic systems rely on permeable soil surrounding the tank to absorb and naturally treat liquid residue so that it doesn’t contaminate runoff water or leak into the water table. This area is known as the drain or leach field.

Before installing a septic tank, you’re legally obligated to obtain a percolation or “perc” test. This test confirms the soil meets requirements set by the city and local health department. Usually, the soil is required to have adequate amounts of permeable contents like sand or gravel. Once the land passes the percolation test, you’ll be able to obtain a permit and start the installation process.

Note: If you want to put a septic tank on a piece of land, it must pass the percolation test. We recommend ordering a test before purchasing the land you want to use for residential purposes.

Plan for Excavation

Heavy equipment is needed to excavate the large amount of land necessary for a septic tank. If you currently reside on the land, make sure to budget landscaping costs to fix any damage incurred during excavation.

If you’re building a new home, schedule the excavation at a time when it’ll have minimal impact on the construction process. Typically, this is before paving the driveways and sidewalks, but after the main frame of the home is built.

Frequently Asked Questions

How Many Years Does A Septic System Last?

A newly bought and installed septic system should last for about 40 years if the tank quality and installation process are good and the system is maintained regularly.

How Often Does A Septic Tank Need To Be Pumped?

While septic tank systems vary in capacity to suit the wastewater output from your home, they are designed to be big enough to store roughly three years’ worth of sludge before needing to be emptied.

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Additional Factors to Consider

A septic tank can either be installed under or above the ground. Installing a tank underground is costly because of the digging and footing preparation involved.

Underground septic tanks require a drain field that can be fitted with a soakaway. The soakaway makes the tank require less emptying because it allows for some of the wastewater to filter into the ground. This can reduce your spending over time.

Different jurisdictions require different permits. Some require that an inspector visit and approve the site, which could entail a fee. Septic tank permits vary from state to state, but in general, you’ll need to pay renewal fees upon the expiry of your permit.

Can You Repair a Septic Leach Field?

There is a technology called septic aeration. EsseYears ago, the answer to this question would have been no; you cannot repair a septic leach field. Today, it is more plausible you could potentially avoid the painful bill of full leach field replacement.

There is a technology called septic aeration. Essentially, aeration devices that dissolve oxygen are added into the wastewater to promote aerobic digestion.

A traditional septic system works in an anaerobic or oxygen-free environment, promoting a black, sludge-like layer called the biomat in the leach field.

After years of use, the biomat builds up and seals the leach field’s ground and sidewalls, stopping it from absorbing water discharged from the septic tank. This results in the septic system failing.

Septic aeration is an easily installed process that converts the anaerobic system to an aerobic or oxygen-rich system.

By adding oxygen into the septic tank, aerobic bacteria thrive and will consume twenty to thirty times more organic material than anaerobic bacteria.

How Septic Aeration Works

The aerobic bacteria significantly reduces the number of nutrients in the septic tank effluent that the biomat requires to live and grow. Eventually, the biomat begins to die.

The biomat is further reduced in size by aerobic bacteria that leave the septic tank along with water containing high levels of dissolved oxygen and feed upon it.

The system makes the biomat shrink in size until it completely disappears. The leach field’s ground and sidewalls return to a permeable state, and the aerobic septic system will now function like it was just installed.

In most cases, the septic problems cease to exist, and the septic system is restored to working conditions in weeks. What you avoid with septic aeration is digging up your yard and tens of thousands of dollars in expense.

You will need to find out if this kind of treatment is acceptable to the local board of health. A local septic system company should be able to provide that answer as well. Another potential method for treating a septic system is what’s referred to as terralift aeration.